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Главная страница Новости науки Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology
Новости науки
ScienceDirect Publication: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology
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  • Tuber extract of Arisaema flavum eco-benignly and effectively synthesize silver nanoparticles: Photocatalytic and antibacterial response against multidrug resistant engineered E. coli QH4

    Publication date: April 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 193

    Author(s): Aziz Ur Rahman, Arif Ullah Khan, Qipeng Yuan, Yun Wei, Aftab Ahmad, Sadeeq Ullah, Zia Ul Haq Khan, Saira Shams, Muhammad Tariq, Waqas Ahmad

    Abstract

    Metal nanoparticles, synthesized using Phyto-constituents are the most economically and environmentally benign materials ever. Biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three fractions of Arisaema flavum tuber extract were synthesized and characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, XRD (X-rays diffraction), FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and EDX (Energy dispersive Microscopy). XRD pattern show the face centred cubic crystalline (Fcc) structure of AgNPs. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of different Polyphenolic compounds capping the AgNps. UV–visible spectroscopy result confirmed the presence of Ag because of the particular surface plasmon Resonance (SPR) in the area of 400-430 nm. The electron microscope studies revealed the formation of spherical AgNPs with diameter ranging from 12 nm to 20 nm. Strong signals of AgNPs were confirmed with EDX analysis. The antibacterial properties of the AgNPs prepared with various extracts were tested against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Which showed significant antibacterial activity against all the multidrug resistant bacterial strains and especially multidrug resistant engineered E.ColiQH4. AgNPs synthesized by methanolic, Ethyl Acetate and aqueous Extracts of Areseama Flavum exhibited significant Photocatalytic activity to reduce methylene blue. Small size, spherical shape and high dispersion are the key properties due to which the AgNPs are having significant biological and photocatalytic activity. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report of biogenic AgNPs regarding antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant Engineered E.Coli QH4.



  • Photoprotection assessment of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves extract standardized to oleuropein: In vitro and in silico approach for improved sunscreens

    Publication date: April 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 193

    Author(s): Anne C.P. da Silva, Juliana P. Paiva, Raiane R. Diniz, Vitor M. dos Anjos, Ana Beatriz S.M. Silva, Alicia Viviana Pinto, Elisabete P. dos Santos, Alvaro C. Leitão, Lucio M. Cabral, Carlos R. Rodrigues, Marcelo de Pádula, Bianca Aloise M.C. Santos

    Abstract

    Olive leaves contain higher amount of polyphenols than olive oil and represent a waste product from olive harvest and pruning of olive trees. The most abundant compound in olive leaves is oleuropein. Benefits of the topical application of olive leaves extract were previously reported, but little information is available on its photoprotective potential and the result of the association of this extract with organic UV filters in topical sunscreen formulations. The olive leaves extract photoprotective potential is less explored for both oral and topical photoprotection in comparison with other plants extracts and polyphenols, such as Polypodium leucotomos extract and resveratrol. There are increasing efforts towards developing more efficient sunscreens and a photoprotection assessement along with a better understanding of the photochemistry of naturally occurring sunscreens could aid the design of new and improved commercial sunscreen formulations. This study was designed to investigate the photoprotective potential of olive leaves extract standardized for oleuropein performing a set of in vitro and in silico tools as an innovative approach, highlighting yeast assays, in vitro Sun Protection Factor (SPF) and molecular modelling studies of UV absorption. This study supports the use of olive leaves extract for photoprotection, as an effective photoprotective, anti-mutagenic and antioxidant active, also showing a synergistic effect in association with UV filters with an improvement on in vitro SPF of sunscreen formulations.

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  • Feasible production of biomass and natural antioxidants through callus cultures in response to varying light intensities in olive (Olea europaea. L) cult. Arbosana

    Publication date: April 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 193

    Author(s): Sher Mohammad, Mubarak Ali Khan, Amir Ali, Latif Khan, Muhammad Shahsawar Khan, Zia-ur-Rehman Mashwani

    Abstract

    Light is the most important physical factor in growth and development of plants. Light intensity is directly proportional to the growth and accumulation of natural antioxidants during in vitro cultures of various medicinal plants. The present research study was designed to determine the effect of different light intensities i.e. normal light (2000–2500 lx), diffused light (500–1000 lx) and complete dark (0 lx) on callus growth dynamics and production of natural antioxidants in olive cult. Arbosana. Highest callus induction frequency (50%) was observed in the stem explants pre-treated with silver nanoparticles suspension (AgNPs: 50 ppm) and cultured on MS media supplemented with combination of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP: 2 mg/l), Gibberellic acid (GA3: 1.5 mg/l) plus Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA: 0.5 mg/l). Maximum callus biomass (FW = 1414 mg/l) was recorded when the cultured explants were incubated initially for seven days in complete darkness, followed by transference to diffused light for one week and then finally placed under normal light in total fifty six days culture period. Moreover, phytochemical analysis of the callus cultures showed significantly higher activities of antioxidant enzymes i.e. SOD, POD, CAT and APx (2.45, 2.96, 2.57 and 1.67 U/mg. protein) in the callus cultures grown under dark condition as compared with other light treatments. For non-enzymatic antioxidant potential, maximum activity of TPC, TFC, PAL and DPPH (2.42 mg GAE/g, 1.50 mg QAE/g, 3.95 U/mg and 75%) were recorded in the calli raised in vitro under diffused light. This is the first report on the production of natural antioxidants in response to different light intensities in callus cultures of Olea europaea. Future studies should focus on large scale production of callus cultures in order to yield maximum biomass from this high valued plant.



  • Staphylococcus aureus resists UVA at low irradiance but succumbs in the presence of TiO2 photocatalytic coatings

    Publication date: April 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 193

    Author(s): Andrea Clemente, Jeremy J. Ramsden, Alec Wright, Felipe Iza, Julie A. Morrissey, Gianluca Li Puma, Danish J. Malik

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated upon irradiation of photocatalytic TiO2 surface coatings using low levels of UVA and the consequent killing of Staphylococcus aureus. The role of intracellular enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase in protecting the bacteria was investigated using mutant strains. Differences were observed in the intracellular oxidative stress response and viability of S. aureus upon exposure to UVA; these were found to be dependent on the level of irradiance and not the total UVA dose. The wild type bacteria were able to survive almost indefinitely in the absence of the coatings at low UVA irradiance (LI, 1 mW/cm2), whereas in the presence of TiO2 coatings, no viable bacteria were measurable after 24 h of exposure. At LI, the lethality of the photocatalytic effect due to the TiO2 surface coatings was correlated with high intracellular oxidative stress levels. The wild type strain was found to be more resistant to UVA at HI compared with an identical dose at LI in the presence of the TiO2 coatings. The UVA-irradiated titania operates by a “stealth” mechanism at low UVA irradiance, generating low levels of extracellular lethal ROS against which the bacteria are defenceless because the low light level fails to induce the oxidative stress defence mechanism of the bacteria. These results are encouraging for the deployment of antibacterial titania surface coatings wherever it is desirable to reduce the environmental bacterial burden under typical indoor lighting conditions.



  • Environmental friendly synthesis of TiO2-ZnO nanocomposite catalyst and silver nanomaterilas for the enhanced production of biodiesel from Ulva lactuca seaweed and potential antimicrobial properties against the microbial pathogens

    Publication date: April 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 193

    Author(s): Sivaprakash Gurusamy, Mohan Rasu Kulanthaisamy, Dinesh Gujuluva Hari, Ananthi Veleeswaran, Boobalan Thulasinathan, Jothi Basu Muthuramalingam, Ravindran Balasubramani, Soon Woong Chang, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Arokiyaraj Selvaraj, Arun Alagarsamy

    Abstract

    TiO2-ZnO heterogeneous catalytic system provides a good replacement of a homogeneous catalytic reaction due to its easier recovery. In this study, biodiesel was produced from Ulva lactuca seaweeds using TiO2–ZnO nanocomposite catalysts with particle size of ~12 nm. The size controlled TiO2–ZnO nanocomposite was characterized by powder XRD analysis and TEM. The result of that TiO2–ZnO catalyst is a promising catalyst for the production of biodiesel under mild reaction conditions and high yield of hydroxydecanoic acid conversion of 82.8%. The various conditions optimized for the higher conversion to FAME (15.8 ml of FAME) were 4 wt% catalysts at 4 h under 60 °C and further there is no increase of conversion to FAME above 60 °C–80 °C. The total product yield was calculated as 82.8% of conversion to FAME. The evaluated biodiesel was found to be up to the mark of ASTM standards. The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by using leftover biomass of algae obtaining after lipid extraction of U.lactuca. AgNPs particle size was achieved as ~12 nm and was confirmed by UV–Visible spectroscopy, XRD and TEM analysis. Antibacterial activities of the synthesized AgNPs were analyzed and compared. The antibacterial activity was excellent against bacterial pathogens and treatment against P. vulgaris shows the maximum zone of inhibition (13.8 mm). The present work identified that the unutilized bioresource such as U.lactuca can be effectively utilized for biodiesel production so as to replace fossil fuel usage.



  • Production of biomass and medicinal metabolites through adventitious roots in Ajuga bracteosa under different spectral lights

    Publication date: April 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 193

    Author(s): Huma Ali, Mubarak Ali Khan, Waqas Khan Kayani, Erum Dilshad, Rehana Rani, Raham Sher Khan

    Abstract

    Ajuga bracteosa an important medicinal herb, is getting endangered worldwide due to destructive harvesting by pharmaceutical industries in its different habitats. It is in dire need for protection and demands conservation and sustainable utilization. In the present study, effects of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) under different spectral lights were estimated on the growth, secondary metabolism and biosynthesis of phenolic acids in adventitious roots (AR) cultures of A. bracteosa. Among the different spectral lights, highest AR induction frequency (88%) and formation of biomass (72 g/L FW and 22 g/L DW) were recorded in explants incubated in the presence of 1.5 mg/L NAA under yellow light. Maximum production of poly phenols (TPC;44.2 mg) and flavonoids (TFC;2.51 mg) were recorded in the AR cultures grown in the presence of blue light. Further, highest total protein content of (401.6 μg) was detected in the AR in response to normal white light. Blue spectral light induced maximum superoxide dismutase (SOD; 2.5 nM) and peroxidase activity (POD;0.85 nM) respectively, in AR cultures. Compared with other monochromatic lights, red light significantly enhanced the antioxidant potential of the AR cultures. Analysis through High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) revealed significant variations in the levels of important phenolic acids such as gallic acid, catechin, rutin, caffeic acid, myricetin and apigenin in the AR samples treated with the lights of different spectra.



  • Capping of silver nanoparticles by anti-inflammatory ligands: Antibacterial activity and superoxide anion generation

    Publication date: April 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 193

    Author(s): Manuel I. Azócar, Romina Alarcón, Antonio Castillo, Jenny M. Blamey, Mariana Walter, Maritza Paez

    Abstract

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely recognized as antibacterial agents. However, its stability and activity over time have been poorly studied. In this work, the properties and characteristics of differently stabilized AgNPs were evaluated during a span of time. The surface capping agents were diclofenac (d), and ketorolac (k), which currently are used as anti-inflammatory in human medicine. On evaluating the size variation over time, it was observed that the AgNPs-k are the most stable, unlike the non-capped nanoparticles agglomerate and precipitate. UV–Vis spectroscopy analysis showed that the absorbance during time decreases for the three types of nanoparticles, but the decrease is less marked for the two types of anti-inflammatory-capped AgNPs. The rapid loss of the optical prop- erties of bare AgNPs, is mainly due to oxidation, agglomeration, and precipitation of this nanoparticles. The potential cytotoxicity of the AgNPs, evaluated through the formation of the superoxide anion using XXT, showed that both, AgNPs-k and AgNPs-d, generate the radical anion when the samples are irradiated with UV light at 365 nm. This effect appears associated with the capping agents, since the bare nanoparticles did not promote the formation of the superoxide anion. The antibacterial activity of the AgNPs throughout time, against two microorganisms (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus), was also evaluated. The results showed that capping agents played a decisive role in the antibacterial ability of AgNPs and also in enhancing the antibacterial activity over time.



  • Binding Interaction of Juglone with Lysozyme: Spectroscopic Studies Aided by In Silico Calculations

    Publication date: April 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 193

    Author(s): Saumen Saha, Joydeep Chowdhury

    Abstract

    Binding interactions between the drug Juglone (JUG) and Lysozyme (LYZ) have been explored in details from spectroscopic studies aided by in silico calculations. UV–Vis, steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic studies indicate the formation of LYZ–JUG complex in the ground state. Quenching of corrected fluorescence spectra of LYZ in presence of JUG at varied concentrations in different temperature range have been estimated from Stern–Volmer (SV) plots. Time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic studies confirm the mechanism of quenching to be of static type. Binding constant associated with the LYZ–JUG complex has been estimated from Scatchard plot. The number of binding sites, thermodynamic parameters and the modes of interaction are also estimated. Synchronous fluorescence spectra monitored at two discrete wavelength windows confirm the prominent role of Tryptophan residues towards quenching of fluorescence in LYZ. The circular dichroism (CD) spectra signify alterations in the population of α–helical content within the secondary structure of LYZ in presence of JUG molecules. REES of LYZ in the presence of JUG further signify definite impact of the drug JUG molecule on the Trp residues of the protein. The experimental observations are supported by in silico molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

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  • Defense potential of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants under UV-B stress

    Publication date: April 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 193

    Author(s): Swabha Takshak, S.B. Agrawal

    Abstract

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has, for many decades now, been widely studied with respect to its consequences on plant and animal health. Though according to NASA, the ozone hole is on its way to recovery, it will still be a considerable time before UV-B levels reach pre-industrial limits. Thus, for the present, excessive UV-B reaching the Earth is a cause for concern, and UV-B related human ailments are on the rise. Plants produce various secondary metabolites as one of the defense strategies under UV-B. They provide photoprotection via their UV-B screening effects and by quenching the reactive oxygen- and nitrogen species produced under UV-B influence. These properties of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) are being increasingly recognized and made use of in sunscreens and cosmetics, and pharma- and nutraceuticals are gradually becoming a part of the regular diet. Secondary metabolites derived from medicinal plants (alkaloids, terpenoids, and phenolics) are a source of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, as well as more rigorously tested and regulated drugs. These metabolites have been implicated in providing protection not only to plants under the influence of UV-B, but also to animals/animal cell lines, when the innate defenses in the latter are not adequate under UV-B-induced damage. The present review focuses on the defense potential of secondary metabolites derived from medicinal plants in both plants and animals. In plants, the concentrations of the alkaloids, terpenes/terpenoids, and phenolics have been discussed under UV-B irradiation as well as the fate of the genes and enzymes involved in their biosynthetic pathways. Their role in providing protection to animal models subjected to UV-B has been subsequently elucidated. Finally, we discuss the possible futuristic scenarios and implications for plant, animal, and human health pertaining to the defense potential of these secondary metabolites under UV-B radiation-mediated damages.



  • Facile development of biodegradable polymer-based nanotheranostics: Hydrophobic photosensitizers delivery, fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy

    Publication date: April 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 193

    Author(s): Neeraj S. Thakur, Gopal Patel, Varun Kushwah, Sanyog Jain, Uttam C. Banerjee

    Abstract

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is reported to be a promising technique to eradicate various cancers. As most of the photosensitizers (PSs) are hydrophobic in nature, thus, the effective delivery of PSs at the targeted site is the main hurdle associated with PDT. Zinc phthalocyanine and Zinc naphthalocyanine are reported as good PSs, however, highly hydrophobic characteristics restrict their use for clinical applications. To circumvent this limitation here we developed the advanced polymer-based nano-delivery system having polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated polymeric core with ~90% PS encapsulation. The PEG coating was responsible for the stabilization of probe in the physiological environment and storage conditions. The developed theranostic probes showed efficient in vitro fluorescence and singlet oxygen quantum yields upon irradiation with 620–750 nm (30 mW/cm2) light. The clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) based mechanism of cellular internalization was evaluated. The fluorescence of treated MCF-7 cells showed the ability of the probes as imaging agents. Moreover, up to 65% cell inhibition showed their cytotoxic efficiency. Further, comparatively higher tumor-accumulation of PSs without significant hepato/nephro-toxicity shown in vivo experimentation using breast tumor-bearing female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats suggested the featured passive targeting ability of preparations and clinically safe to be used. The study explored the exceptional delivery system for hydrophobic PSs with commendable theranostic applications.

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