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Главная страница Новости науки Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology
Новости науки
ScienceDirect Publication: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology
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  • Catalytic, antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of biosynthesised silver nanoparticles using Prosopis juliflora leaf extract along with their wound healing potential

    Publication date: January 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 190

    Author(s): Geeta Arya, R. Mankamna Kumari, Nikita Sharma, Nidhi Gupta, Ajeet Kumar, Sreemoyee Chatterjee, Surendra Nimesh

    Abstract

    The present study focuses on the catalytic, antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an easy, rapid and eco-friendly pathway. Herein, we have synthesised AgNPs using an aqueous extract of P. juliflora leaf. The bioactive compounds present in the extract are responsible for the reduction of Ag+ to Ag0. The particle synthesis was first observed by visual color change and then characterized using UV–visible spectroscopy to confirm the formation of AgNPs. The synthesis conditions were then optimised using critical parameters such as reaction time, AgNO3 concentration, extract to AgNO3 ratio and temperature of the reaction. The hydrodynamic size of the AgNPs with Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was 55.24 nm, while, was in the range of 10–20 nm as determined through Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Further, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies were conducted to discern the functional groups or compounds responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate as well as the capping of silver nanoparticles. Later, X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed crystalline nature of the biosynthesized AgNPs. To evaluate their antibacterial potential, AgNPs were assessed through disc-diffusion assay, which resulted in an appreciable dose-dependent activity. The antibacterial potential was investigated through disc-diffusion assay against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The Congo red agar (CRA) plate assay successfully revealed the anti-biofilm activity against B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa. Further, the catalytic activity of synthesised AgNPs was assessed against azo dyes such a Methylene Blue (MB) and Congo Red (CR) that resulted in its effective degradation of toxic compounds in a short span of time. Further, AgNPs were assessed for their wound healing potential.

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  • Nanostructured TiO2-induced photocatalytic stress enhances the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content in the leaves of Vitis vinifera on a genotype-dependent manner

    Publication date: January 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 190

    Author(s): László Kőrösi, Sakina Bouderias, Kristóf Csepregi, Balázs Bognár, Péter Teszlák, Alice Scarpellini, Andrea Castelli, Éva Hideg, Gábor Jakab

    Abstract

    Over the past decades, nanotechnology has received great attention and brought revolutionary solutions for a number of challenges in scientific fields. Industrial, agricultural and medical applications of engineered nanomaterials have increased intensively. The ability of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), when excited by ultra-violet (UV) light, makes them useful for effectively inactivate various pathogens. It is known that ROS also have signalling role in living organisms, therefore, TiO2 NPs-induced ROS can influence both enzymatic and non-enzymatic defence systems, and could play a role in the resistance of plants to pathogens. Herein, we studied the photocatalytic stress responses of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) as model plant, when exposed to a well-known photocatalyst, Degussa P25 TiO2 NPs. The photocatalytically produced ROS such as superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen were confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Foliar exposure of five red cultivars (Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc, Merlot, Kékfrankos and Kadarka) was carried out in blooming phenophase under field condition where plants are exposed to natural sunlight with relatively high UV radiation (with a maximum of ~ 45 W m−2). After two weeks of exposure, the effects of photogenerated ROS on the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, flavonol profile and the main macro-, microelements of the leaves were studied in detail. We found that foliar application of TiO2 NPs boosted the total phenolic content and biosynthesis of the leaf flavonols depending on the grapevine variety. Photocatalytically active TiO2 NPs also increased K, Mg, Ca, B and Mn levels in the leaves as shown by ICP-AES measurements.

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  • Revealing structural involvement of chromophores in algal light harvesting complexes using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory

    Publication date: January 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 190

    Author(s): Zi S.D. Toa, Jacob C. Dean, Gregory D. Scholes

    Abstract

    The attribution of quantum beats observed in the time-resolved spectroscopy of photosynthetic light-harvesting antennae to nontrivial quantum coherences has sparked a flurry of research activity beginning a decade ago. Even though investigations into the functional aspects of photosynthetic light-harvesting were supported by X-ray crystal structures, the non-covalent interactions between pigments and their local protein environment that drive such function has yet to be comprehensively explored. Using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT), we have comprehensively determined the magnitude and compositions of these non-covalent interactions involving light-harvesting chromophores in two quintessential photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes — peridinin chlorophyll-a protein (PCP) from dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae and phycocyanin 645 (PC645) from cryptophyte Chroomonas mesostigmatica. In PCP, the chlorophylls are dispersion-bound to the peridinins, which in turn are electrostatically anchored to the protein scaffold via their polar terminal rings. This might be an evolutionary design principle in which the relative orientation of the carotenoids towards the aqueous environment determines the arrangement of the other chromophores in carotenoid-based antennas. On the other hand, electrostatics dominate the non-covalent interactions in PC645. Our ab initio simulations also suggest full protonation of the PC645 chromophores in physiological conditions, and that changes to their protonation states result in their participation as switches between folded and unfolded conformations.

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  • Biosynthesis and characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles from indigenous fungi and its effect of photothermolysis on human lung carcinoma

    Publication date: January 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 190

    Author(s): Kandasamy Saravanakumar, Sabarathinam Shanmugam, Nipun Babu Varukattu, Davoodbasha MubarakAli, Kandasamy Kathiresan, Myeong-Hyeon Wang

    Abstract

    In this report, copper oxide nanoparticles (TA-CuO NPs) were synthesized using cell-free extract of Trichoderma asperellum and assessed their photothermal induced anticancerous activity. The fungal mediated TA-CuO NPs was confirmed by the surface plasmon resonance at 285–295 nm. The amide (CO) and aromatic (CC) groups in secondary metabolites of the extract was found to be an encapsulating or reducing agents for TA-CuO NPs, as indicated by IR spectra. Crystalline nature by cubic face-centered structure of the TA-CuO NPs was confirmed by XRD and their size ranges from 10 to 190 nm and an average of 110 nm by particle size analyzer (PSA). The Ultra HRSEM study revealed spherical shaped TA-CuO NPs. The FETEM results were also in strong agreement with PSA and UHR SEM. The survey-scan spectrum of XPS indicated the presence of C1s (47.83%), Cu2p (16.11%), Na1s (2.2%) and O1s (33.86%). The cell death was significantly found higher in photothermal induced by near-infrared laser (TA-CuO NPs-NIR) treated than that of TA-CuO NPs treatment. The level of ROS (35.62%) was higher in the treated cells than that of the untreated control, in accordance with the nucleus damage and losses in the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). The upregulation of Bcl-2 in the untreated cells and Cas-3 in TA-CuO NPs-NIR treated cells was confirmed by western blot analysis. This work agreed with the potential biogenic TA-CuO NPs for promising in vitro photothermolysis of cancer cells, for the development of anticancer nanotherapeutics.

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  • A novel synthesis of selenium nanoparticles encapsulated PLGA nanospheres with curcumin molecules for the inhibition of amyloid β aggregation in Alzheimer's disease

    Publication date: January 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 190

    Author(s): Xinlong Huo, Yongqiang Zhang, Xinchun Jin, Yongang Li, Li Zhang

    Abstract

    The main factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the cerebral accumulation and the formation of extracellular amyloid plaques. The Aβ peptides are highly able to accumulative and produce fibrils that are placed to form these plaques in the AD. The biological action and drug delivery properties of curcumin (Cur) nanoformulation in the Alzheimer's disease therapeutics can be developed by the altering surface of the Poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) polymer and encapsulation of selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs). The morphological structure, size distributions of nanospheres, chemical interactions between the polymer and nanoformulations of synthesized curcumin and Se NPs loaded PLGA nanospheres have been studied by using the techniques of analytical instruments. The microscopic and nano observation results of synthesized Cur loaded nanospheres are exhibited that the mono-dispersed distributions of particles with spherical shaped structure. The present drug delivery system of Cur loaded Se-PLGA nanospheres could be decreases the amyloid-β load in the brains samples of AD mice, and greatly cured the memory deficiency of the model mice. The specific binding of Cur loaded Se-PLGA nanospheres with Aβ plaques were visualized by fluorescence microscopic technique. Se-PLGA targeting delivery system to amyloid plaques might be providing the enhanced therapeutic efficacy in AD lesions, which was studied by using transgenic mice (5XFAD). In conclusion, Cur loaded Se-PLGA nanoformulation has been demonstrated that valued delivery system for the targeted delivery and effective way to treat AD.

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  • Anticancer, antimicrobial and photocatalytic activities of green synthesized magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgONPs) using aqueous extract of Sargassum wightii

    Publication date: January 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 190

    Author(s): Arivalagan Pugazhendhi, Raju Prabhu, Kavitha Muruganantham, Rajasree Shanmuganathan, Suganthy Natarajan

    Abstract

    A rapid and ecofriendly fabrication of metal oxide nanoparticles using biogenic sources is the current trend being used to replace the toxic chemical method. The present study was carried out to synthesize magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgONPs) using the marine brown algae Sargassum wighitii as the reducing and capping agent. The as-prepared MgONPs were characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. UV–visible spectrum of the MgONPs showed a sharp absorption peak at 322 nm. X- ray diffraction analysis illustrated that the MgONPs were crystalline in nature with a face-centered cubic structure. Presence of magnesium and oxygen were further confirmed by EDX profile. FTIR analysis showed the presence of functional groups specific for sulfated polysaccharides, which might be responsible for the synthesis of MgONPs. Zeta potential and dynamic light scattering analysis illustrated that the MgONPs were highly stable at 19.8 mV with an average size of 68.06 nm. MgONPs showed potent antibacterial activity and antifungal activities against human pathogens. Photocatalytic activity of MgONPs was witnessed by the quick degradation of the organic dye methylene blue on exposure to both sunlight and UV irradiation. MgONPs showed significant cytotoxicity against the lung cancer cell lines A549 in a dose dependent manner with the IC50 value of 37.5 ± 0.34 μg/ml. Safety evaluation using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) illustrated the MgONPs to be non-toxic in nature. Overall, the results concluded that the MgONPs generated using marine algae have exhibited scope for multifaceted biological applications.

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  • Vicenin-2 ameliorates oxidative damage and photoaging via modulation of MAPKs and MMPs signaling in UVB radiation exposed human skin cells

    Publication date: January 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 190

    Author(s): Xi Duan, Tao Wu, Ting Liu, Hao Yang, Xiaojie Ding, Yan Chen, Yunzhu Mu

    Abstract

    Exposure of ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the major factor from environment to cause erethema, inflammation, photoaging and skin carcinogenesis. Vicenin-2, a bioflavonoid which are isolated from several medicinal plants. The present study was demonstrated the role of vicenin-2 on UVB linked oxidative stress and photoaging signaling in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). In this study, UVB-irradiation (100 mJ/cm2) significantly elevated the intracellular ROS levels, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, depletion of antioxidants resulted in apoptotic HDF cells. Interestingly, HDF cells were administrated with vicenin-2, 1 h before UVB-irradiation prevents ROS generation, TBARS, apoptotic changes and DNA damage in HDF. MAPKs and MMP signaling are implicated in oxidative stress and photoaging; these signaling events are considered as photoaging and differentiation. We found that Vicenin-2 prevents over expression of MAPKs (p-ERK1, p-JNK & p-p38), AP-1 and MMPs (MMP-2, 9 & 12) in during the exposure of UVB in HDF cells. These findings conclude that vicenin-2 could be a potential bioactive ingredient to absorb UV photons and protects the dermal cells from the UVB associated oxidative stress and photoaging signaling due to sunscreen properties.



  • Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles, characterization and their loading with zonisamide as a novel drug delivery system for the treatment of acute spinal cord injury

    Publication date: January 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 190

    Author(s): Chunyang Fang, Ziping Ma, Liqiu Chen, Hongjie Li, Chao Jiang, Wenbin Zhang

    Abstract

    In the present work, a facile biosynthetic approach for the synthesis of AuNPs using bark extract of Juglans regia (J. regia) is reported. Ultra-violet visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopic studies exhibited and narrow SPR absorption band at 540 nm, represented the isotropy in particle size. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, confirmed the fabrication of spherical and crystalline nanoparticles of average size of about 14 nm. Also, typical characteristic selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern showed the crystalline nature of AuNPs. The prepared AuNPs were loaded with zonisamide which can be used for future spinal cord injury repair applications. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis represented the zonisamide loading onto AuNPs. The biological preparation of AuNPs using the bark extract of J. regia is prominent approach because of its eco friendly nature without using any toxic chemicals. The controlled-release of zonisamide-AuNPs was about 43.0 ± 2.2 nm with high stability and solubility under room temperature conditions. Further, the cytotoxicity results showed the comparatively higher toxicity of zonisamide-AuNPs towards CTX TNA2 cells than free zonisamide. Hence, zonisamide-AuNPs may act as very good clinical drug for future therapeutic treatment of spinal cord injury.

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  • Association between seasonal serum folate levels and ultraviolet radiation

    Publication date: January 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 190

    Author(s): Estefanía Valencia-Vera, José Aguilera, Andrés Cobos, Jean-Luc Bernabó, Vidal Pérez-Valero, Enrique Herrera-Ceballos

    Abstract

    UV radiation has been consistently reported to cause folate photodegradation in vitro and in human skin. Seasonal variations in UV radiation might explain seasonal changes in folate levels in blood. Yet, few studies have addressed this phenomenon. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether a relationship exists between seasonal variations in serum folate levels in a population of Spain (Latitude: 36° 41′ 6.88″; Longitude: 4° 30′ 0.64″) and the annual variations of solar ultraviolet reached in the localization.

    From a sample of 118,831 serum folate determinations, two studies were performed. The first one, which included all subjects, showed a decreased in mean folate concentrations in all seasons with respect to winter with lower values in summer. The risk of folate deficiency was 1.37 times greater in summer than in winter (95%CI: 1.29–1.46). In the second study, subjects with a first folate determination in winter and a second one in summer were 3.32 more likely to develop folate deficiency than those with a first folate determination in summer and a second one in winter (95%CI: 1.55 to 7.11).

    Folate levels showed a seasonal variation inversely related to solar total UV radiation reached in our location, with maximum daily doses of 5000 J m−2 reached in June. A gradual increase in percentage of folate deficiency is observed since spring. So, patients with folate levels close to deficiency are at a higher risk of having folate deficiency in summer.



  • Photo-dependent somatic embryogenesis from non-embryogenic calli and its polyphenolics content in high-valued medicinal plant of Ajuga bracteosa

    Publication date: January 2019

    Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 190

    Author(s): Gul Rukh, Nisar Ahmad, Abdur Rab, Naveed Ahmad, Hina Fazal, Fazal Akbar, Irfan Ullah, Sidra Mukhtar, Nadia Samad

    Abstract

    Ajuga bracteosa (A. bracteosa) is one of the critically endangered and high-valued medicinal plants worldwide. Light is one of the major factor or stimulus involved in the morphogenic responses and bioactive compounds production in various medicinal plants. In this study, unique properties of colored lights have been observed on induction of somatic embryos from non-embryonic calli cultures of A. bracteosa. The maximum callogenic response (92.32%) from leaf explants was observed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with benzyl adenine (BA; 2.0 l−1) and 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2.4-D; 1.0 mg l−1). Calli cultures with same hormonal concentrations were placed under different spectral lights for somatic embryogenesis and photochemical variations. Red lights were found effective for maximum somatic embryos induction (92.75%) with optimum biomass accumulation (152.64 g l−1) on day 40. Similarly, among all the spectral lights, red light exhibited the highest DPPH-radical scavenging activity (DRSA; 92.86%). In contrast, blue lights induced maximum biosynthesis of chemically important total phenolics content and total flavonoids content (TPC; 0.264 and TFC; 0.06 mg/g-DW), respectively. Furthermore, blue, green and red lights also enhanced phenolics and production, polyphenolics content and total polyphenolics production in somatic embryos. It is concluded that exposure of calli cultures to colored lights provides an effective and promising in vitro technique for conservation of endangered A. bracteosa species and enhancement of its bioactive compounds. Steps should be taken to adopt these strategies/ techniques at a larger scale in order to yield maximum benefits from this highly valued medicinal plant species.



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