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ScienceDirect Publication: Free Radical Biology and Medicine
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  • Oxidative stress damage circumscribed to the central temporal retinal pigment epithelium in early experimental non-exudative age-related macular degeneration

    Publication date: 1 February 2019

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 131

    Author(s): Hernán H. Dieguez, Horacio E. Romeo, Agustina Alaimo, María F. González Fleitas, Marcos L. Aranda, Ruth E. Rosenstein, Damián Dorfman

    Abstract

    Non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (NE-AMD) represents the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. The macular retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) lies in a high oxidative environment because its high metabolic demand, mitochondria concentration, reactive oxygen species levels, and macular blood flow. It has been suggested that oxidative stress-induced damage to the RPE plays a key role in NE-AMD pathogenesis. The fact that the disease limits to the macular region raises the question as to why this area is particularly susceptible. We have developed a NE-AMD model induced by superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx) in C57BL/6J mice, which reproduces the disease hallmarks exclusively circumscribed to the temporal region of the RPE/outer retina. The aim of this work was analyzing RPE regional differences that could explain AMD localized susceptibility. Lower melanin content, thicker basal infoldings, higher mitochondrial mass, and higher levels of antioxidant enzymes, were found in the temporal RPE compared with the nasal region. Moreover, SCGx induced a decrease in the antioxidant system, and in mitochondria mass, as well as an increase in mitochondria superoxide, lipid peroxidation products, nuclear Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 levels, and in the occurrence of damaged mitochondria exclusively at the temporal RPE. These findings suggest that despite the well-known differences between the human and mouse retina, it might not be NE-AMD pathophysiology which conditions the localization of the disease, but the macular RPE histologic and metabolic specific attributes that make it more susceptible to choroid alterations leading initially to a localized RPE dysfunction/damage, and secondarily to macular degeneration.

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  • A Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins (FPOP) platform for free-radical reactions: the carbonate radical anion with peptides and proteins

    Publication date: 1 February 2019

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 131

    Author(s): Mengru Mira Zhang, Don L. Rempel, Michael L. Gross

    Abstract

    Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Protein (FPOP), based on a pulsed KrF laser (248 nm) for free-radical generation, is a biophysical method that utilizes hydroxyl radicals to footprint proteins in solution. FPOP has been recognized for structural proteomics investigations, including epitope mapping, protein-aggregation characterization, protein-folding monitoring, and binding-affinity determination. The distinct merits of the platform are: i) the use of a scavenger to control radical lifetime and allow fast (“snapshot”) footprinting of solvent-accessible residues in a protein; ii) the employment of a flow system to enable single-shot irradiation of small plugs of the targeted sample; iii) the use of methionine and catalase after radical oxidation chemistry to prevent post-oxidation with residual oxidizing species; and iv) the utilization of mature mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods to afford detailed analysis. In addition to OH, other reactive reagents (e.g., carbenes, iodide, sulfate radical anion, and trifluoromethyl radical) can be implemented on this platform to increase the versatility and scope. In this study, we further elaborate the use of FPOP platform to generate secondary radicals and establish a workflow to answer fundamental questions regarding the intrinsic selectivity and reactivity of radicals that are important in biology. Carbonate radical anion is the example we chose owing to its oxidative character and important putative pathogenic roles in inflammation. This systematic study with model proteins/peptides gives consistent results with a previous study that evaluated reactivity with free amino acids and shows that methionine and tryptophan are the most reactive residues with CO3-•. Other aromatic amino acids (i.e., tyrosine, histidine and phenylalanine) exhibit moderate reactivity, whereas, aliphatic amino acids are inert, unlike with OH. The outcome demonstrates this approach to be appropriate for studying the fast reactions of radicals with proteins.

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  • Drosophila methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) lacks methionine oxidase activity

    Publication date: 1 February 2019

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 131

    Author(s): Sreya Tarafdar, Geumsoo Kim, Rodney L. Levine

    Abstract

    Mouse, human, and E. coli methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) stereospecifically catalyze both the reduction of S-methionine sulfoxide to methionine and the oxidation of methionine to S-methionine sulfoxide. Calmodulin has 9 methionine residues, but only Met77 is oxidized by MSRA, and this is completely reversed when MSRA operates in the reductase direction. Given the powerful genetic tools available for Drosophila, we selected this model organism to identify the in vivo calmodulin targets regulated by redox modulation of Met77. The active site sequences of mammalian and Drosophila MSRA are identical, and both contain two cysteine residues in their carboxy terminal domains. We produced recombinant Drosophila MSRA and studied its biochemical and biophysical properties. The enzyme is active as a methionine sulfoxide reductase, but it cannot function as a methionine oxidase. The first step in the mammalian oxidase reaction is formation of a sulfenic acid at the active site, and the second step is the reaction of the sulfenic acid with a carboxy terminal domain cysteine to form a disulfide bond. The third step regenerates the active site through a disulfide exchange reaction with a second carboxy terminal domain cysteine. Drosophila MSRA carries out the first and second steps, but it cannot regenerate the active site in the third step. Thus, unlike the E. coli and mammalian enzymes, Drosophila MSRA catalyzes only the reduction of methionine sulfoxide and not the oxidation of methionine.

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  • The human allicin-proteome: S-thioallylation of proteins by the garlic defence substance allicin and its biological effects

    Publication date: 1 February 2019

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 131

    Author(s): Martin C.H. Gruhlke, Haike Antelmann, Jörg Bernhardt, Veronika Kloubert, Lothar Rink, Alan J. Slusarenko

    Abstract

    A single clove of edible garlic (Allium sativum L.) of about 10 g produces up to 5 mg of allicin (diallylthiosulfinate), a thiol-reactive sulfur-containing defence substance that gives injured garlic tissue its characteristic smell. Allicin induces apoptosis or necrosis in a dose-dependent manner but biocompatible doses influence cellular metabolism and signalling cascades. Oxidation of protein thiols and depletion of the glutathione pool are thought to be responsible for allicin's physiological effects. Here, we studied the effect of allicin on post-translational thiol-modification in human Jurkat T-cells using shotgun LC-MS/MS analyses. We identified 332 proteins that were modified by S-thioallylation in the Jurkat cell proteome which causes a mass shift of 72 Da on cysteines. Many S-thioallylated proteins are highly abundant proteins, including cytoskeletal proteins tubulin, actin, cofilin, filamin and plastin-2, the heat shock chaperones HSP90 and HSPA4, the glycolytic enzymes GAPDH, ALDOA, PKM as well the protein translation factor EEF2. Allicin disrupted the actin cytoskeleton in murine L929 fibroblasts. Allicin stimulated the immune response by causing Zn2+ release from proteins and increasing the Zn2+-dependent IL-1-triggered production of IL-2 in murine EL-4 T-cells. Furthermore, allicin caused inhibition of enolase activity, an enzyme considered a cancer therapy target. In conclusion, our study revealed the widespread extent of S-thioallylation in the human Jurkat cell proteome and showed effects of allicin exposure on essential cellular functions of selected targets, many of which are targets for cancer therapy.

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  • Riboflavin-induced Type 1 photo-oxidation of tryptophan using a high intensity 365 nm light emitting diode

    Publication date: 1 February 2019

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 131

    Author(s): Eduardo Silva, Pablo Barrias, Eduardo Fuentes-Lemus, Cristian Tirapegui, Alexis Aspee, Luke Carroll, Michael J. Davies, Camilo López-Alarcón

    Abstract

    The mechanism of photo-oxidation of tryptophan (Trp) sensitized by riboflavin (RF) was examined employing high concentrations of Trp and RF, with a high intensity 365 nm light emitting diode (LED) source under N2, 20% and 100% O2 atmospheres. Dimerization of Trp was a major pathway under the N2 atmosphere, though this occurred with a low yield (DφTrp = 5.9 × 10−3), probably as a result of extensive back electron transfer reactions between RF•- and Trp(H)•+. The presence of O2 decreased the extent of this back electron transfer reaction, and the extent of Trp dimerization. This difference is attributed to the formation of O2•- (generated via electron transfer from RF•- to O2) which reacts rapidly with Trp leading to extensive consumption of the parent amino acid and formation of peroxides and multiple other oxygenated products (N-formylkynurenine, alcohols, diols) of Trp, as detected by LC-MS. Thus, it appears that the first step of the Type 1 mechanism of Trp photo-oxidation, induced by this high intensity 365 nm light source, is an electron transfer reaction between the amino acid and 3RF, with the presence of O2 modulating the subsequent reactions and the products formed, as a result of O2•- formation. These data have potential biological significance as LED systems and RF-based treatments have been proposed for the treatment of pathological myopia and keratitis.

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  • Increased plasma levels of the lipoperoxyl radical-derived vitamin E metabolite α-tocopheryl quinone are an early indicator of lipotoxicity in fatty liver subjects

    Publication date: 1 February 2019

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 131

    Author(s): Pierangelo Torquato, Desirée Bartolini, Danilo Giusepponi, Marta Piroddi, Bartolomeo Sebastiani, Giorgio Saluti, Roberta Galarini, Francesco Galli

    Abstract

    Lipid peroxidation is one of the earliest pathogenic events of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this context, an increased oxidation of the lipoperoxyl radical scavenger α-tocopherol (α-TOH) should occur already in the subclinical phases of the disease to compensate for the increase oxidation of the lipid excess of liver and possibly of other tissues. However, this assumption remains unsupported by direct analytical evidence.

    In this study, GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS procedures have been developed and applied for the first time to measure the vitamin E oxidation metabolite α-tocopheryl quinone (α-TQ) in plasma of fatty liver (FL) subjects that were compared in a pilot cross-sectional study with healthy controls. The protein adducts of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and the free form of polyunsaturated free fatty acids (PUFA) were measured as surrogate indicators of lipid peroxidation. α-TQ formation was also investigated in human liver cells after supplementation with α-TOH and/or fatty acids (to induce steatosis).

    Compared with controls, FL subjects showed increased (absolute and α-TOH-corrected) levels of plasma α-TQ and 4-HNE, and decreased concentrations of PUFA. α-TQ levels positively correlated with indices of liver damage and metabolic dysfunction, such as alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin and triglycerides, and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol.

    Fatty acid supplementation in human hepatocytes stimulated the generation of cellular oxidants and α-TOH uptake leading to increased α-TQ formation and secretion in the extracellular medium - both were markedly stimulated by α-TOH supplementation.

    In conclusion, plasma α-TQ represents an early biomarker of the lipoperoxyl radical-induced oxidation of vitamin E and lipotoxicity of the fatty liver.

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  • Pretreatment with Korean red ginseng or dimethyl fumarate attenuates reactive gliosis and confers sustained neuroprotection against cerebral hypoxic-ischemic damage by an Nrf2-dependent mechanism

    Publication date: 1 February 2019

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 131

    Author(s): Lei Liu, Mary K. Vollmer, Abdullah S. Ahmad, Victoria M. Fernandez, Hocheol Kim, Sylvain Doré

    Abstract

    The transcriptional factor Nrf2, a master regulator of oxidative stress and inflammation that are tightly linked to the development and progression of cerebral ischemia pathology, plays a vital role in inducing the endogenous neuroprotective process. Here, hypoxic-ischemia (HI) was performed in adult Nrf2 knockout and wildtype mice that were orally pretreated either with standardized Korean red ginseng extract (Ginseng) or dimethyl fumarate (DMF), two candidate Nrf2 inducers, to determine whether the putative protection was through an Nrf2-dependent mechanism involving the attenuation of reactive gliosis. Results show that Nrf2 target cytoprotective genes were distinctly elevated following HI. Pretreatment with Ginseng or DMF elicited robust neuroprotection against the deterioration of acute cerebral ischemia damage in an Nrf2-dependent manner as revealed by the reductions of neurological deficits score, infarct volume and brain edema, as well as enhanced expression levels of Nrf2 target antioxidant proteins and anti-inflammation mediators. In both ischemic striatum and cortex, the dynamic pattern of attenuated reactive gliosis in astrocytes and microglia, including affected astrocytic dysfunction in glutamate metabolism and water homeostasis, correlated well with the Nrf2-dependent neuroprotection by Ginseng or DMF. Furthermore, such neuroprotective benefits extended to the late phase of ischemic brain damage after HI, as evidenced by improvements in neurobehavioral outcomes, infarct volume and brain edema. Overall, pretreatment with Ginseng or DMF identically attenuates reactive gliosis and confers long-lasting neuroprotective efficacy against ischemic brain damage through an Nrf2-dependent mechanism. This study also provides new insight into the profitable contribution of reactive gliosis in the Nrf2-dependent neuroprotection in acute brain injury.

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  • Autophagy augmentation alleviates cigarette smoke-induced CFTR-dysfunction, ceramide-accumulation and COPD-emphysema pathogenesis

    Publication date: 1 February 2019

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 131

    Author(s): Manish Bodas, Garrett Pehote, David Silverberg, Erich Gulbins, Neeraj Vij

    Abstract

    In this study, we aimed to investigate precise mechanism(s) of sphingolipid-imbalance and resulting ceramide-accumulation in COPD-emphysema. Where, human and murine emphysema lung tissues or human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas2b) were used for experimental analysis. We found that lungs of smokers and COPD-subjects with increasing emphysema severity demonstrate sphingolipid-imbalance, resulting in significant ceramide-accumulation and increased ceramide/sphingosine ratio, as compared to non-emphysema/non-smoker controls. Next, we found a substantial increase in emphysema chronicity-related ceramide-accumulation in murine (C57BL/6) lungs, while sphingosine levels only slightly increased. In accordance, the expression of the acid ceramidase decreased after CS-exposure. Moreover, CS-induced (sub-chronic) ceramide-accumulation was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by treatment with TFEB/autophagy-inducing drug, gemfibrozil (GEM), suggesting that autophagy regulates CS-induced ceramide-accumulation. Next, we validated experimentally that autophagy/lipophagy-induction using an anti-oxidant, cysteamine, significantly (p < 0.05) reduces CS-extract (CSE)-mediated intracellular-ceramide-accumulation in p62 + aggresome-bodies. In addition to intracellular-accumulation, we found that CSE also induces membrane-ceramide-accumulation by ROS-dependent acid-sphingomyelinase (ASM) activation and plasma-membrane translocation, which was significantly controlled (p < 0.05) by cysteamine (an anti-oxidant) and amitriptyline (AMT, an inhibitor of ASM). Cysteamine-mediated and CSE-induced membrane-ceramide regulation was nullified by CFTR-inhibitor-172, demonstrating that CFTR controls redox impaired-autophagy dependent membrane-ceramide accumulation. In summary, our data shows that CS-mediated autophagy/lipophagy-dysfunction results in intracellular-ceramide-accumulation, while acquired CFTR-dysfunction-induced ASM causes membrane ceramide-accumulation. Thus, CS-exposure alters the sphingolipid-rheostat leading to the increased membrane- and intracellular- ceramide-accumulation inducing COPD-emphysema pathogenesis that is alleviated by treatment with cysteamine, a potent anti-oxidant with CFTR/autophagy-augmenting properties.

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    Our study verifies that smokers and COPD subjects as well as mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) have alveolar sphingolipid-imbalance (elevated ceramide/sphingosine ratio). Mechanistically, we demonstrate that CS-exposure impairs autophagy/lipophagy in human and murine airway via activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This leads to intracellular ceramide-accumulation into p62 + aggresome-bodies. Additionally, CS-induced acquired CFTR-dysfunction results in ASM-mediated membrane-ceramide release. This unrestricted ceramide-accumulation further aggravates airway homeostasis, especially in settings of chronic CS-exposure, leading to COPD-emphysema pathogenesis. As a proof of concept, cysteamine, an anti-oxidant and autophagy-inducing drug shows promise in controlling both membrane- and intracellular- ceramide accumulation as well as COPD-emphysema pathogenesis.

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  • Peroxiredoxin 3 deficiency accelerates chronic kidney injury in mice through interactions between macrophages and tubular epithelial cells

    Publication date: 1 February 2019

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 131

    Author(s): Inah Hwang, Md Jamal Uddin, Gayoung Lee, Songling Jiang, Eun Seon Pak, Hunjoo Ha

    Abstract

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become epidemic worldwide. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress is an important mediator of CKD, and Prx3 plays a critical role in maintenance of mitochondrial ROS. The present study examined the role of Prx3 in the context of fibrosis, a common feature of CKD, using Prx3 KO mice under obstructive and diabetic stress. Prx3 deficiency accelerated fibrosis and inflammation accompanied by mitochondrial oxidative stress in obstructed and diabetic kidneys as well as in proximal tubular epithelial (mProx) cells. In addition, Prx3 deficiency induced Raw264.7 macrophages activation, leading to upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Conditioned media from LPS-stimulated Prx3 deficient macrophages accelerated proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines in mProx cells. Interestingly, Prx3 deficiency induced most inflammatory and fibrotic cytokines at basal condition in both tissues and cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Prx3 deficiency can accelerate CKD through interactions between macrophages and tubular epithelial cells.

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  • Base excision repair plays an important role in the protection against nitric oxide- and in vivo-induced DNA damage in Trypanosoma brucei

    Publication date: 1 February 2019

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 131

    Author(s): Miriam Yagüe-Capilla, Daniel García-Caballero, Fernando Aguilar-Pereyra, Víctor M. Castillo-Acosta, Luis M. Ruiz-Pérez, Antonio E. Vidal, Dolores González-Pacanowska

    Abstract

    Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) initiates the base excision repair pathway by excising uracil from DNA. We have previously shown that Trypanosoma brucei cells defective in UNG exhibit reduced infectivity thus demonstrating the relevance of this glycosylase for survival within the mammalian host. In the early steps of the immune response, nitric oxide (NO) is released by phagocytes, which in combination with oxygen radicals produce reactive nitrogen species (RNS). These species can react with DNA generating strand breaks and base modifications including deaminations. Since deaminated cytosines are the main substrate for UNG, we hypothesized that the glycosylase might confer protection towards nitrosative stress. Our work establishes the occurrence of genotoxic damage in Trypanosoma brucei upon exposure to NO in vitro and shows that deficient base excision repair results in increased levels of damage in DNA and a hypermutator phenotype. We also evaluate the incidence of DNA damage during infection in vivo and show that parasites recovered from mice exhibit higher levels of DNA strand breaks, base deamination and repair foci compared to cells cultured in vitro. Notably, the absence of UNG leads to reduced infectivity and enhanced DNA damage also in animal infections. By analysing mRNA and protein levels, we found that surviving UNG-KO trypanosomes highly express tryparedoxin peroxidase involved in trypanothione/tryparedoxin metabolism. These observations suggest that the immune response developed by the host enhances the activation of genes required to counteract oxidative stress and emphasize the importance of DNA repair pathways in the protection to genotoxic and oxidative stress in trypanosomes.

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