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Free Radical Biology and Medicine
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Free Radical Biology and Medicine
  • PKCδ-dependent p47phox activation mediates methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity
    Publication date: 1 February 2018
    Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 115

    Author(s): Duy-Khanh Dang, Eun-Joo Shin, Dae-Joong Kim, Hai-Quyen Tran, Ji Hoon Jeong, Choon-Gon Jang, Ole Petter Ottersen, Seung-Yeol Nah, Jau-Shyong Hong, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Hyoung-Chun Kim

    Protein kinase C (PKC) has been recognized to activate NADPH oxidase (PHOX). However, the interaction between PKC and PHOX in vivo remains elusive. Treatment with methamphetamine (MA) resulted in a selective increase in PKCδ expression out of PKC isoforms. PKCδ co-immunoprecipitated with p47phox, and facilitated phosphorylation and membrane translocation of p47phox. MA-induced increases in PHOX activity and reactive oxygen species were attenuated by knockout of p47phox or PKCδ. In addition, MA-induced impairments in the Nrf-2-related glutathione synthetic system were also mitigated by knockout of p47phox or PKCδ. Glutathione-immunoreactivity was co-localized in Iba-1-labeled microglial cells and in NeuN-labeled neurons, but not in GFAP-labeled astrocytes, reflecting the necessity for self-protection against oxidative stress by mainly microglia. Buthionine-sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis, potentiated microglial activation and pro-apoptotic changes, leading to dopaminergic losses. These neurotoxic processes were attenuated by rottlerin, a pharmacological inhibitor of PKCδ, genetic inhibitions of PKCδ [i.e., PKCδ knockout mice (KO) and PKCδ antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)], or genetic inhibition of p47phox (i.e., p47phox KO or p47phox ASO). Rottlerin did not exhibit any additive effects against the protective activity offered by genetic inhibition of p47phox. Therefore, we suggest that PKCδ is a critical regulator for p47phox activation induced by MA, and that Nrf-2-dependent GSH induction via inhibition of PKCδ or p47phox, is important for dopaminergic protection against MA insult.

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  • An improved cell-permeable fluorogenic substrate as the basis for a highly sensitive test for NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in living cells
    Publication date: Available online 8 January 2018
    Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine

    Author(s): Simone Cuff, Ruth D. Lewis, Edwin Chinje, Mohammed Jaffar, Richard Knox, Ian Weeks

    NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a flavoenzyme upregulated in response to oxidative stress and in some cancers. Its upregulation by compounds has been used as an indicator of their potential anti-cancer properties. In this study we have designed, produced and tested a fluorogenic coumarin conjugate which selectively releases highly fluorescent 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) in the presence of NQO1. It was found that measuring 4-MU release rapidly and specifically quantitated NQO1 levels in vitro and in live cells. Both the substrate and its products freely perfused through cell membranes and were non-toxic. The substrate was very specific with low background, and the assay itself could be done in less than 10minutes. This is the first assay to allow the quantitation of NQO1 in live cells which can then be retained for further experiments.

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  • Thermal tolerance and thermal sensitivity of heart mitochondria: Mitochondrial integrity and ROS production
    Publication date: 20 February 2018
    Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 116

    Author(s): Felix Christen, Véronique Desrosiers, Bernard A. Dupont-Cyr, Grant W. Vandenberg, Nathalie R. Le François, Jean-Claude Tardif, France Dufresne, Simon G. Lamarre, Pierre U. Blier

    Cardiac mitochondrial metabolism provides 90% of the ATP necessary for the contractile exertion of the heart muscle. Mitochondria are therefore assumed to play a pivotal role in heart failure (HF), cardiovascular disease and ageing. Heat stress increases energy metabolism and oxygen demand in tissues throughout the body and imposes a major challenge on the heart, which is suspected of being the first organ to fail during heat stress. The underlying mechanisms inducing heart failure are still unclear. To pinpoint the processes implicated in HF during heat stress, we measured mitochondrial respiration rates and hydrogen peroxide production of isolated Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) heart mitochondria at 4 temperatures: 10°C (acclimation), 15°C, 20°C and 25°C (just over critical maximum). We found that at temperature ranges causing the loss of an organism's general homeostasis (between 20°C and 25°C) and with a substrate combination close to physiological conditions, the heat-induced increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption levels off. More importantly, at the same state, hydrogen peroxide efflux increased by almost 50%. In addition, we found that individuals with low mitochondrial respiration rates produced more hydrogen peroxide at 10°C, 15°C and 20°C. This could indicate that individuals with cardiac mitochondria having a low respiratory capacity, have a more fragile heart and will be more prone to oxidative stress and HF, and less tolerant to temperature changes and other stressors. Our results show that, at temperatures close to the thermal limit, mitochondrial capacity is compromised and ROS production rates increase. This could potentially alter the performance of the cardiac muscle and lead to heat-induced HF underlining the important role that mitochondria play in setting thermal tolerance limits.

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  • The NOX1 isoform of NADPH oxidase is involved in dysfunction of liver sinusoids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Publication date: 1 February 2018
    Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 115

    Author(s): Misaki Matsumoto, Jia Zhang, Xueqing Zhang, Junjie Liu, Joy X. Jiang, Kanji Yamaguchi, Akiyuki Taruno, Masato Katsuyama, Kazumi Iwata, Masakazu Ibi, Wenhao Cui, Kuniharu Matsuno, Yoshinori Marunaka, Yoshito Itoh, Natalie J. Torok, Chihiro Yabe-Nishimura

    The increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been postulated to play a key role in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the source of ROS and mechanisms underlying the development of NAFLD have yet to be established. We observed a significant up-regulation of a minor isoform of NADPH oxidase, NOX1, in the liver of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients as well as of mice fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 weeks. In mice deficient in Nox1 (Nox1KO), increased levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic cleaved caspase-3 demonstrated in HFC diet-fed wild-type mice (WT) were significantly attenuated. Concomitantly, increased protein nitrotyrosine adducts, a marker of peroxynitrite-induced injury detected in hepatic sinusoids of WT, were significantly suppressed in Nox1KO. The expression of NOX1 mRNA was much higher in the fractions of enriched liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) than in those of hepatocytes. In primary cultured LSECs, palmitic acid (PA) up-regulated the mRNA level of NOX1, but not of NOX2 or NOX4. The production of nitric oxide by LSECs was significantly attenuated by PA-treatment in WT but not in Nox1KO. When the in vitro relaxation of TWNT1, a cell line that originated from hepatic stellate cells, was assessed by the gel contraction assay, the relaxation of stellate cells induced by LSECs was attenuated by PA treatment. In contrast, the relaxation effect of LSECs was preserved in cells isolated from Nox1KO. Taken together, the up-regulation of NOX1 in LSECs may elicit peroxynitrite-mediated cellular injury and impaired hepatic microcirculation through the reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide. ROS derived from NOX1 may therefore constitute a critical component in the progression of NAFLD.

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  • Aging and Parkinson's Disease: Inflammaging, neuroinflammation and biological remodeling as key factors in pathogenesis
    Publication date: 1 February 2018
    Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 115

    Author(s): Vittorio Calabrese, Aurelia Santoro, Daniela Monti, Rosalia Crupi, Rosanna Di Paola, Saverio Latteri, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Mario Zappia, James Giordano, Edward J. Calabrese, Claudio Franceschi

    In order to better understand the pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease (PD) it is important to consider possible contributory factors inherent to the aging process, as age-related changes in a number of physiological systems (perhaps incurred within particular environments) appear to influence the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, we posit that a principal mechanism underlying PD is inflammaging, i.e. the chronic inflammatory process characterized by an imbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms which has been recognized as operative in several age-related, and notably neurodegenerative diseases. Recent conceptualization suggests that inflammaging is part of the complex adaptive mechanisms (“re-modeling”) that are ongoing through the lifespan, and which function to prevent or mitigate endogenous processes of tissue disruption and degenerative change(s). The absence of an adequate anti-inflammatory response can fuel inflammaging, which propagates on both local (i.e.- from cell to cell) and systemic levels (e.g.- via exosomes and other molecules present in the blood). In general, this scenario is compatible with the hypothesis that inflammaging represents a hormetic or hormetic-like effect, in which low levels of inflammatory stress may prompt induction of anti-inflammatory mediators and mechanisms, while sustained pro-inflammatory stress incurs higher and more durable levels of inflammatory substances, which, in turn prompt a local-to-systemic effect and more diverse inflammatory response(s). Given this perspective, new treatments of PD may be envisioned that strategically are aimed at exerting hormetic effects to sustain anti-inflammatory responses, inclusive perhaps, of modulating the inflammatory influence of the gut microbiota.

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  • Relevance of 4-F4t-neuroprostane and 10-F4t-neuroprostane to neurological diseases
    Publication date: 1 February 2018
    Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 115

    Author(s): Cinzia Signorini, Claudio De Felice, Thierry Durand, Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Silvia Leoncini, Lucia Ciccoli, Marisa Carone, Monica Ulivelli, Caterina Manna, Alessio Cortelazzo, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee, Joussef Hayek

    F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NeuroPs) are non-enzymatic oxidized products derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and are suggested to be oxidative damage biomarkers of neurological diseases. However, 128 isomers can be formed from DHA oxidation and among them, 4(RS)−4-F4t-NeuroP (4-F4t-NeuroP) and 10(RS)−10-F4t-NeuroP (10-F4t-NeuroP) are the most studied. Here, we report the identification and the clinical relevance of 4-F4t-NeuroP and 10-F4t-NeuroP in plasma of four different neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), Rett syndrome (RTT), and Down syndrome (DS). The identification and the optimization of the method were carried out by gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC/NICI-MS/MS) using chemically synthesized 4-F4t-NeuroP and 10-F4t-NeuroP standards and in oxidized DHA liposome. Both 4-F4t-NeuroP and 10-F4t-NeuroP were detectable in all plasma samples from MS (n = 16), DS (n = 16), ASD (n = 9) and RTT (n = 20) patients. While plasma 10-F4t-NeuroP content was significantly higher in patients of all diseases as compared to age and gender matched healthy control subjects (n = 61), 4-F4t-NeuroP levels were significantly higher in MS and RTT as compared to healthy controls. Significant positive relationships were observed between relative disease severity and 4-F4t-NeuroP levels (r = 0.469, P <0.0001), and 10-F4t-NeuroP levels (r = 0.757, P < 0.0001). The study showed that the plasma amount ratio of 10-F4t-NeuroP to 4-F4t-NeuroP and the plasma amount as individual isomer can be used to discriminate between different brain diseases. Overall, by comparing the different types of disease, our plasma data indicates that 4-F4t-NeuroP and 10-F4t -NeuroP: i) are biologically synthesized in vivo and circulated, ii) are related to clinical severity of neurological diseases, iii) are useful to identify shared pathogenetic pathways in distinct brain diseases, and iv) appears to be distinctive for different neurological conditions, thus representing potentially new biological disease markers. Our data strongly suggest that in vivo DHA oxidation follows preferential chemical rearrangements according to different brain diseases.

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  • F2-isoprostanes can mediate bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis
    Publication date: 1 February 2018
    Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 115

    Author(s): Beatrice Arezzini, Daniela Vecchio, Cinzia Signorini, Blerta Stringa, Concetta Gardi

    F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) have been considered markers of oxidative stress in various pulmonary diseases, but little is known about their possible role in pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we have investigated the potential key role of F2-IsoPs as markers and mediators of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. During the in vivo study, plasma F2-IsoPs showed a peak at 7 days and remained elevated for the entire experimental period. Lung F2-IsoP content nearly tripled 7 days following the intratracheal instillation of BLM, and by 28 days, the value increased about fivefold compared to the controls. Collagen deposition correlated with F2-IsoP content in the lung. Furthermore, from day 21 onwards, lung sections from BLM-treated animals showed α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive cells, which were mostly evident at 28 days. In vitro studies performed in rat lung fibroblasts (RLF) demonstrated that either BLM or F2-IsoPs stimulated both cell proliferation and collagen synthesis. Moreover, RLF treated with F2-IsoPs showed a significant increase of α-SMA expression compared to control, indicating that F2-IsoPs can readily activate fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. Our data demonstrated that F2-IsoPs can be mediators of key events for the onset and development of lung fibrosis, such as cell proliferation, collagen synthesis and fibroblast activation. Immunocytochemistry analysis, inhibition and binding studies demonstrated the presence of the thromboxane A2 receptor (TP receptor) on lung fibroblasts and suggested that the observed effects may be elicited through the binding to this receptor. Our data added a new perspective on the role of F2-IsoPs in lung fibrosis by providing evidence of a profibrotic role for these mediators in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.

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  • Neopterin preconditioning prevents inflammasome activation in mammalian astrocytes
    Publication date: 1 February 2018
    Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 115

    Author(s): Roberta de Paula Martins, Karina Ghisoni, Chai K. Lim, Aderbal Silva Aguiar, Gilles J. Guillemin, Alexandra Latini

    Neopterin, a well-established biomarker for immune system activation, is found at increased levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of individuals affected by neurological/neurodegenerative diseases. Here, neopterin synthesis was investigated in different nerve cells (rodent and human) and in the mouse hippocampus under inflammatory stimuli. We also aimed to investigate whether neopterin preconditioning could modulate the inflammasome activation, a component of the innate immune system. Increased neopterin was detected in human nerve cells supernatants (highest secretion in astrocytes) exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (INF-γ) and in the hippocampus of mice receiving LPS (0.33mg/kg; intraperitoneal). In parallel to the hippocampal-increased neopterin, it was observed a significant increase in the expression of the rate-limiting enzyme of its biosynthetic pathway, and both phenomena occurred before the inflammasome activation. Moreover, a significant inhibition of the inflammasome activation was observed in neopterin pre-conditioned human astrocytes, when challenged with LPS, by reducing IL-1β, caspase-1 and ASC expression or content, components of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Mechanistically, neopterin might induce eletrophilic stress and consequently the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor Nrf-2, and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-1ra release, which would induce the inhibition of the inflammasome activation. Altogether, this strongly suggests an essential role of neopterin during inflammatory processes.

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  • The A to Z of modulated cell patterning by mammalian thioredoxin reductases
    Publication date: 1 February 2018
    Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 115

    Author(s): Markus Dagnell, Edward E. Schmidt, Elias S.J. Arnér

    Mammalian thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) are selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins) that propel a large number of functions through reduction of several substrates including the active site disulfide of thioredoxins (Trxs). Well-known enzymatic systems that in turn are supported by Trxs and TrxRs include deoxyribonucleotide synthesis through ribonucleotide reductase, antioxidant defense through peroxiredoxins and methionine sulfoxide reductases, and redox modulation of a number of transcription factors. Although these functions may be essential for cells due to crucial roles in maintenance of cell viability and proliferation, findings during the last decade reveal that mammals have major redundancy in their cellular reductive systems. The synthesis of glutathione (GSH) and reductive functions of GSH-dependent pathways typically act in parallel with Trx-dependent pathways, with only one of these systems often being sufficient to support viability. Importantly, this does not imply that a modulation of the Trx system will remain without consequences, even when GSH-dependent pathways remain functional. As suggested by several recent findings, the Trx system in general and the TrxRs in particular, function as key regulators of signaling pathways. In this review article we will discuss findings that collectively suggest that modulation in mammalian systems of cytosolic TrxR1 (TXNRD1) or mitochondrial TrxR2 (TXNRD2) influence cell patterning and cellular stress responses. Effects of lower activities include increased adipogenesis, insulin responsiveness, glycogen accumulation, hyperproliferation, and distorted embryonic development, while increased activities correlate with decreased proliferation and extended lifespan, as well as worse cancer prognosis. The molecular mechanisms that underlie these diverse effects, involving regulation of protein phosphorylation cascades and of key transcription factors that guide cellular differentiation pathways, will be discussed. We conclude that the selenium-dependent oxidoreductases TrxR1 and TrxR2 should be considered as key components of signaling pathways that control cell differentiation and cellular stress responses.

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  • Nitric oxide treatment attenuates muscle atrophy during hind limb suspension in mice
    Publication date: 1 February 2018
    Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 115

    Author(s): Judy E. Anderson, Antonia Zhu, Tooru M. Mizuno

    Debilitating muscle-disuse atrophy in aging or obesity has huge socioeconomic impact. Since nitric oxide (NO) mediates muscle satellite cell activation and induces hypertrophy with exercise in old mice, we tested whether treatment with the NO donor, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), during hind limb suspension would reduce atrophy. Mice were suspended 18 days, with or without daily ISDN (66mg/kg). Muscles were examined for atrophy (weight, fiber diameter); regulatory changes in atrogin-1 (a negative regulator of muscle mass), myostatin (inhibits myogenesis), and satellite cell proliferation; and metabolic responses in myosin heavy chains (MyHCs), liver lipid, and hypothalamic gene expression. Suspension decreased muscle weight and weight relative to body weight between 25–55%, and gastrocnemius fiber diameter vs. controls. In young-adult mice, ISDN attenuated atrophy by half or more. In quadriceps, ISDN completely prevented the suspension-induced rise in atrogin-1 and drop in myostatin precursor, and attenuated the changes in MyHCs 1 and 2b observed in unloaded muscles without treatment. Fatty liver in suspended young-adult mice was also reduced by ISDN; suspended young mice had higher hypothalamic expression of the orexigenic agouti-related protein, Agrp than controls. Notably, a suspension-induced drop in muscle satellite cell proliferation by 25–58% was completely prevented (young mice) or attenuated (halved, in young-adult mice) by ISDN. NO-donor treatment has potential to attenuate atrophy and metabolic changes, and prevent regulatory changes during disuse and offset/prevent wasting in age-related sarcopenia or space travel. Increases in precursor proliferation resulting from NO treatment would also amplify benefits of physical therapy and exercise.

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